In order to understand PCB trace width, it is important to first discuss printed circuit board (PCB) design in general. This design process is used to translate electronic circuits into a physical format. Layout software is used to implement the design process that produces the circuit board’s electrical connectivity. A number of characteristics and requirements factor into the design process, including what the spacing needs to be between the traces, what the trace is connecting, and how much current can, or needs to, flow through it. It is important to remember that for any specific trace, there is a maximum current amount that it will be able to handle before it fails. Too much current will end up destroying the trace, either by burning through it or breaking it from the board
A PCB trace is designed to connect an electrical signal between two junctions. These junctions can be of a variety of types, and PCB trace widths vary in width and length. There are a number of different factors that are used to determine the actual required length and width of a PCB trace. It can be helpful to think of a trace fulfilling the same kind of functionality as a wire, as both are used to conduct signals.
Specific design requirements are one of the things that determine trace width. For example, requirements for high voltage or speed optimization will factor into the required width. Board specifics, performance requirements and cost can all factor in. When being designed for high end equipment, the tolerances can become extremely important, and the need for careful testing and inspection can drive up costs.
Designs that are created to support very specific applications such as high-speed communication between peripherals can also have very specific PCB trace width requirements. High voltage is another situation where there are often very specific requirements, as a safety measure to prevent arcing. The needs of the signal play a large part in the width, which is why a single board can contain a variety of different trace widths.
Functions and peripherals that require a lot of power, such as a motor or a fan, naturally require thicker traces, and they need to have an appropriate current carrying capacity. Sometimes there are impedance requirements, which also factor into width and spacing specifications. PCB traces function as resistors, so if a trace is narrow and long, it is going to provide more resistance as compared to one that is wide and short. Improper design of the trace could result in damage to the trace itself or the component. There are specific calculations that must take place in order to make sure that the trace width and length are appropriate for their purpose.
Certain applications also require specific trace widths and lengths to minimize issues such as reflection and cross talk. It is extremely important that all relevant details and requirements are factored in when calculating the appropriate trace width and length. Trace width calculators are used to determine exactly what the specifications need to be.
More detailed onfo can be found at https://www.avanticircuits.com/the-ultimate-guide-to-picking-the-right-pcb-trace-width/.